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Health Professions

Navigate the links below to find more information and resources about specific health programs and professions.

Anesthesiology assistant

Anesthesiologist assistants are highly skilled professionals who work under the direction of licensed anesthesiologists and as part of the anesthesia team to design and implement anesthesia care plans. They accompany the patient before, during and after anesthesia. Application to master’s programs in anesthesia requires completion of a bachelor’s degree and pre-medical course work. Visit the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Programs to find a program and learn more about admissions requirements.

Athletic training

Athletic Trainers (ATs) are health care professionals who collaborate with physicians to provide preventative services, emergency care, clinical diagnosis, therapeutic intervention and rehabilitation of injuries and medical conditions.

Regional Athletic Program Prerequisites

St. Scholastica

MSU Mankato

Chiropractic Medicine

Chiropractors are primary care professionals and play a vital, life-changing role. Chiropractic relieves pain, increases mobility and optimizes performance through safe and effective spinal adjustments and manipulation. Learn more about the profession at Discover Chiropractic. The Association of Chiropractic Colleges provides information on schools and academic requirements.

Dental School

The American Dental Education Association is the voice of dental education. ADEA provides information on the admissions process, deciding where to apply, and how to prepare to submit the AADSAS application. The Texas Medical and Dental Schools Application Service (TMDSAS) is the centralized application processing service for applicants to the first-year entering classes at all of the public medical, dental, and veterinary schools in Texas.

Dr. Naty Lopez, Assistant Dean for Admissions & Diversity at the University of Minnesota School of Dentistry, speaks on Building a Competitive Application.

The ADEA’s Enrichment Programs Calendar has programs and experiences in the U.S. for students interested in dentistry.

Watch a Dental School Zoom Panel on URGO’s YouTube.

Dental Therapy

Minnesota became the first state in 2009 to establish licensure of dental therapists, with the primary purpose to extend dental health to under-served populations. Dental therapists provide basic preventive and restorative treatment to children and adults, and extractions of primary (baby) teeth under the supervision of a dentist. Dental therapists work primarily in settings that serve low-income, uninsured and under-served populations or in a dental health professional shortage area. Learn more about the dental therapy program at the University of Minnesota School of Dentistry.

American Student Dental Association

The American Student Dental Association is a national student-run organization that protects and advances the rights, interests, and welfare of dental students. It introduces students to lifelong involvement in organized dentistry and provides services, information, education, representation, and advocacy.

Genetic Counseling

Genetic counselors have advanced training in medical genetics and counseling to provide patients with personalized help in making genetic health decisions. The National Society of Genetic Counselors promotes the professional interests of genetic counselors and provides information for those interested in becoming a genetic counselor.


The Association of University Programs in Health Administration (AUPHA) provides information on health administration/management programs and a program directory.


There are two kinds of medical schools, allopathic (MD) and osteopathic (DO). The main difference is osteopathic schools teach osteopathic manipulative maneuvers used to find health in patients. This document and the resources below can provide you with more information on allopathic and osteopathic medical schools. The Premed Years is a free podcast to learn more about how to get into medical school. All Access: Med School Admissions is another podcast that provides listeners with informative conversations to learn about a variety of medical schools and what they are looking for in prospective students. Check out these tips for medical school applicants with disabilities and the Docs with Disabilities podcast.

If you plan to pursue MD/DO-PhD programs, the American Physician Scientists Association (APSA) has a great undergraduate resources page and you can also find recordings from their past interactive sessions. Watch a Medical School Physician Zoom Panel on URGO’s YouTube.

American Association of Medical Colleges

The Association of American Medical Colleges is a not-for-profit association representing all 141 accredited U.S. and 17 accredited Canadian medical schools, nearly 400 major teaching hospitals and health systems, including 51 Department of Veterans Affairs medical centers, and nearly 90 academic and scientific societies.  Popular Premed Resources is a one-stop shop for links to resources, guidance and tips about AAMC’s services. Subscribe to the Premed Navigator, a newsletter that contains information, resources, and tips to help you on your path to medical school. The Core Competencies Resources page includes information on the core competencies sought in med school applicants as well as self-assessment guides.  Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) and AAMC also identified scientific and personal capabilities in “Scientific Foundations for Future Physicians.” The American Medical College Application Service (AMCAS) is the centralized medical school application most U.S. medical schools use as the primary application method for their first-year entering classes.

The Texas Medical and Dental Schools Application Service (TMDSAS) is the centralized application processing service for applicants to the first-year entering classes at all of the public medical, dental, and veterinary schools in Texas.

Minorities in Medicine: The AAMC is committed to a culturally competent, diverse, and prepared health and biomedical workforce that leads to improved health and health equity. Increasing the number of underrepresented minorities in medical education and biomedical sciences is part of its mission.

Pre-health Collection of the Collaborative is a web-based repository of teaching and learning resources for faculty and students as they teach and study for all areas represented in the new MCAT2015 exam. Instructional material ranges from textual resources with self-assessment questions to videos and linked assessment questions produced in collaboration with the Khan Academy.  All material is searchable by content and tied explicitly to MCAT2015 “foundational concepts” and associated content categories in all fields represented in the new MCAT (biology, biochemistry, chemistry, physics, psychology, sociology, and statistics).

Regional MD Programs Prerequisites

Mayo Clinic School of Medicine

University of Minnesota Medical School

Creighton University

University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine

Medical College of Wisconsin

University of Wisconsin

The American Medical Association’s Med School page

Medical School and Residency: Research graduate and medical education programs, access educational resources about becoming a physician and get tools to help guide your career path.

This site features information about various health careers and the required licensure. There are also links to articles, subscriptions to free e-newsletters, and a link to FREIDA, a complete database of accredited medical schools.

Medically Inspired

Medically inspired is a Global non-profit organization dedicated to premed students. We have made it our goal to make the premed years as trouble-free as possible.

Sign up for the free membership in order to gain access to a newsletter, advice, and links.

Student Doc

Medical Student’s Resource Guide

This site is a resource for those already in medical school as much as it is for those looking to apply. However, there are plenty of resources for both groups of people (and reading the information for those already in school will give you a sense of what it might be like).

There are two separate sets of links: The left sidebar links to information on the subjects of student loans, essay editing, test prep, financial aid, and medical schools. Scroll down the middle section of the page to find links to the Medical School Forum and information about medical student finances, USMLE, medical careers, and premed resources. You can also find information about the pros and cons of Caribbean medical schools.

The most useful links for current undergraduates are probably “Medical School Admissions” and “Medical School Search: Are your MCAT scores competitive?” The latter, if you enter your MCAT scores, gives you an alphabetical list of programs with color-coding for “competitive”, “very competitive”, and “less competitive”, which might give you a vague sense (just based on this one factor–it’s by no means foolproof) of how easily you might get in to each program (click on “details” to get the school averages).

U.S. Medical Schools for International Students

American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine (AACOM)

This site provides a similar application service for schools with a more holistic (and still scientific) approach to medicine. For more details about what osteopathic medicine entails, and how to use their application service, see their website. Colleges of osteopathic medicine encourage applicants to learn more about the profession by shadowing.

Osteopathic medical schools to which our alumni apply include:

A.T. Still-Kirksville

Des Moines University College of Osteopathic Medicine

Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences

Michigan State University

New York Institute of Technology

Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Western University of Health Sciences-Pomona

The Choose DO Explorer provides information on school locations, dual degree options, institutional campus settings, mean overall GPA and MCAT scores for enrolled students, and application deadlines, among other relevant college details.

MN Pre-Student Osteopathic Medical Association Regional Chapter (MN Pre-SOMA)

This group is designed to help students continue towards a career within osteopathic medicine. Its membership is free and open to all pre-medical students and professionals in/from Minnesota interested in pursuing a career as an osteopathic physician. It will provide events for networking with a wide variety of different people within the osteopathic profession or having a relation to the profession including osteopathic medical societies, policymakers, osteopathic physicians, current osteopathic medical school students, and people related to significant historical figures who played a role in Minnesota’s rich history of osteopathic medicine. See their website for more information or contact

American Association of Colleges of Podiatric Medicine

Podiatrists, Doctors of Podiatric Medicine, are qualified by their education and training to diagnose and treat conditions affecting the foot and ankle. A doctor of podiatric medicine (DPM) is a specialist in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of foot, ankle, and related structures of the leg. Podiatric physicians specialize in areas such as diabetes and wound care, orthopedics, pediatrics, geriatrics, sports medicine, surgery, and dermatology. There are nine colleges of podiatric medicine in the US which all utilize AACPMAS for admission. Many current podiatry students chose to pursue a career in podiatry after shadowing a DPM.


The American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) is the national voice for baccalaureate and graduate nursing education. AACN works to establish quality standards for nursing education; assists schools in implementing those standards; influences the nursing profession to improve health care; and promotes public support for professional nursing education, research, and practice. AACN also provides information on financial aid and scholarship opportunities.

There are three schools in Minnesota which offer entry-level Master’s programs:

Metropolitan State University

Saint Catherine University

University of Minnesota

NursingCAS is a service that allows applicants to use a single application to apply to multiple programs at participating schools.


Occupational therapists help people across the lifespan participate in the things they want and need to do through the therapeutic use of everyday activities (occupations). See the American Occupational Therapy Association for more information on resources for starting an OT career.

The Accreditation Council for Occupational Therapy Education has mandated that the entry-level degree requirement for the occupational therapist move to the doctoral level by July 1, 2027.

The University of Minnesota had the first class of OTD students begin Fall 2019 on both the Rochester and Twin Cities campuses. The Master of Occupational Therapy program is no longer accepting new admissions.

St. Catherine University offers an entry-level M.A. in Occupational Therapy and an entry-level Doctor of Occupational Therapy program. A post-professional, online Doctor of Occupational Therapy (OTD-PP) designed for occupational therapists with a master’s degree is also available.

The College of St. Scholastica offers an M.S. in Occupational Therapy.

The American Occupational Therapy Foundation administers over 50 scholarships from corporate sponsors, state associations, and endowments.


Optometrists are primary-care doctors who treat and manage ocular disorders, diseases, and injuries of the eye. One of the fastest growing fields in the nation with nearsightedness on the rise and a growing aging population, optometrists are able to make meaningful connections with patients and find an appropriate work-life balance.

This comprehensive list of accredited schools and colleges of optometry in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico is provided by the American Optometric Student Association (AOSA), an affiliate of the American Optometric Association (AOA). The AOA represents more than 44,000 doctors of optometry (O.D.s), optometric professionals, and optometry students, and serves as a great resource for information on the ever-changing field of optometry.

The OAT is an optometry admission test designed to provide optometry education programs with a means to assess program applicants’ potential for success. The OAT consists of a battery of four tests on the following: Survey of the Natural Sciences, Physics, Reading Comprehension, and Quantitative Reasoning. Read the OAT Guide before starting the OAT application process.

pathologist assistant

A Pathologists’ Assistant (PA) is a highly trained, allied health professional who provides various services under the direction and supervision of a pathologist. Pathologists’ assistants interact with pathologists in a manner similar to physician’s assistants in surgical and medical practice, carrying out their duties under the direction of their physicians. To become a pathologist assistant, you must attend and graduate from an accredited program and pass the certification exam. Visit the American Association of Pathologists’ Assistants site to learn more about prerequisites.


The American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) offers Which Pharmacy Career is the Best Fit for You – a fun, interactive way for you to explore pharmacy careers. Answer a few, simple questions on the Pharmacy Is Right for Me (Pharm4Me) website and have a pharmacy career recommended for you. The infotainment tool highlights 15 different practice areas and showcases several profiles of practicing pharmacists. Take the quiz and expand your understanding of the profession!

The Pharmacy School Admissions Requirements provides information on each pharmacy school, admissions requirements, and selection criteria. The PCAT is a specialized test that helps identify qualified applicants.

Visit University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy to learn more about their program and Augsburg courses that fulfill pre-pharmacy prerequisites.


Physical therapists are health care professionals who diagnose and treat individuals of all ages who have medical problems or other health-related conditions that limit their abilities to move and perform functional activities in their daily lives. The American Physical Therapy Association provides an overview of educational programs and questions to consider when selecting a program. The Physical Therapist Centralized Application Services (PTCAS) is a centralized application service that streamlines the admissions process for many PT programs and offers a PT Program Directory.

Regional PT Program Prerequisites

College of St. Scholastica

Des Moines University

St. Catherine University

University of Minnesota


A physician assistant (PA) is a nationally certified and state-licensed medical professional who practices medicine as a member of a healthcare team with physicians and other providers. The American Academy of Physician Assistants provides general information on how to become a PA. Contact the Minnesota Academy of Physician Assistants for assistance in identifying potential PAs to shadow. PA programs typically require an application through the Centralized Application Service for Physician Assistants (CASPA) and a supplemental application. The Physician Assistant Education Association has a PA Program Directory with filtering options. CASPA verifies and computes multiple GPAs as part of the application. Watch a Physician Assistant Zoom Panel on URGO’s YouTube.

Regional PA Program Prerequisites

Augsburg University PA Studies

Bethel University

College of St. Scholastica

Des Moines University

St. Catherine University


Public health promotes and protects the health of individuals, communities, and entire populations. By focusing on the places where people live, learn, work and play, public health professionals help prevent disease and improve quality of life through reducing environmental pollutants, creating awareness campaigns, providing education on a variety of health topics, and more.

Interested in public health? The Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health has resources if you want to learn more about what public health is or if you want to find a program. URGO alumni have pursued diverse careers in public health that can help you envision what your future in the field could look like.


Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges

This website is a comprehensive resource for veterinary school. You can use it to research and apply to schools. The site links to VMCAS, one application that can be used to apply to multiple schools, and pre-vet student resources. Vet School 101 offers advice for the best chance to be admitted. The Admitted Student Statistics tool provides data on applicant pool size, average GPAs, and average GRE scores.

The Veterinary Medical School Admissions Requirements (VMSAR) website provides veterinary school information, including entrance requirements, admissions process, evaluation criteria, acceptance data, tuition/cost, prerequisite coursework required, and other relevant information. The website replaces the print version of the VMSAR and will be complimentary access for all.

The Texas Medical and Dental Schools Application Service (TMDSAS) is the centralized application processing service for applicants to the first-year entering classes at all of the public medical, dental, and veterinary schools in Texas.